Monday, November 7, 2011

Pledge of al-Aqabah

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First Pledge of al-Aqabah:

Muhammad (pbuh) was waiting for the next pilgrimage and when the day of pilgrimage came he sought the appointed spot. A band of twelve faithful disciples came by this time to Makkah and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) contacted them at al-Aqabah in 621 A.D. of the pilgrims, ten were of the Khazraj tribe and two of the Aws tribe. They accepted Islam at the hands of Muhammad (pbuh) and took the following oath:

‘We will not worship anything except God; we will not steal, neither will we commit adultery, nor kill our children; we will not slander in any manner; nor will we disobey the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in anything that is right’.

This oath of the newly converted Yathribites is known as the first pledge of al-Aqabah. It was during this name that Muhammad (pbuh) sent his favorite follower, Musab to Yathrib at the request of the Yathribities to teach the Holy Quran there.  

The Miraj:

The hopes of Muhammad (pbuh) were now fixed upon Yathrib and he waited patiently for the call from the Yathribities. Just during this period the Miraj (ascent) took place. Muhammad (pbuh) met his maker one night at Heaven and was charged with the behest that his people were to prostrate themselves in prayer five times a day. 

 Second Pledge of al-Aqabah:

In the following year of the first pledge of al-Aqabah, seventy-three men from Yathrib came to Makkah and offered an oath of allegiance to the Prophet. The new converts to Islam pledged to help and protect the Prophet. They also invited him to go to their city. Musab, who was sent to Yathrib as a teacher to teach the Muslims there had also accompanied the pilgrims’ party. He came back, called on the the prophet and told him about the rapid progress of Islam at Yathrib. The idea of the migration to Yathrib was then born in the heart of the Prophet. But there were other causes which compelled him to leave the land of his birth for Yathrib.

Related Post : 
   => The Hijrah : Natural Environment of Makkah andMadina
   => Emigration to Abyssinia 
   => Muhammad (pbuh) and Khadija
   => Journey to Syria 
   => Childhood of Muhammad (pbuh)
   => Timeline of Muhammad (pbuh) 
   => Revelation of Holy Quran 
   => Boycott ofthe Prophet by the Quraish 
   => Death of Khadija and Abu Talib  
   => People of Taif rejected him 







The Mother of Mohammed, Amina was of Jewish birth. Von Hammer.

“Mohammed, who was the only son of Abdallah, a Pagan, and Amina, a Jewess, and was descended from the noble but impoverished family of Hashim, of the priestly tribe of Koreish, who were the chiefs and keepers of the national sanctuary of the Kaaba, and pretended to trace their origin to Ismael, the son of Abraham and Hagar, was
born at Mecca, August 20, A.D. 570 ...’

At that period, there were many “Jews’ in that area. Again from The History Of The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, volume 5, page 202:

“Seven hundred years before the death of Mahomet the Jews were settled in Arabia; and a far greater multitude was expelled from the Holy Land in the wars of Titus and Hadrian. The industrious exiles aspired to liberty and power: they erected synagogues in the cities, and castles in the wilderness; and their Gentile converts were confounded with the children of Israel [Jews] ...”

Waves of Israelites to Arabia bringing Judaism in various stages of development

The traditional view of Arabian history centers on Yemen. It is assumed that a fairly developed civilization grew in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. For several hundred years it grew rich by exporting gold, frankincense and myrrh to the Roman Empire; as well as controlling the overland routes to India and the East. The first collapse of the Marib dam around 450 CE; the decline of the use of frankincense due to the Christianization of Rome; and the Rome success bypassing the desert by using a sea route led to the collapse of southern Arabian society. This in turn led to
waves of immigration from the South to North, from the city to the desert.

Dr. Günter Lüling proposes an alternative paradigm.[1] He proposes a "more historical picture of Central Arabia, inundated throughout a millennium by heretical Israelites". He envisions waves of Israelite refugees headed, North to South, to Arabia bringing with them Judaism in various stages of development. Linguistic and literary-historical research in the Qur'an tends to support the notion of a more northerly origin for linguistic development of Arabic.[2] Here is a brief summary of three of these waves of Judaic immigration: Herodian, Sadducean and Zealot (explained in more detail elsewhere).[3]

During the time of Ptolemy, the native population of Cush originally inhabited both sides of the Red Sea: on the east, southern and eastern Arabia; and on the west, Abyssinia (Ethiopia-Eritrea). During the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor (r 181–145 BCE), the Jewish High Priest Onias IV built a Jewish Temple in Heliopolis, Egypt and also one in Mecca, Arabia. He did this to fulfill his understanding of the prophecy of Isaiah 19:19, "In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord (Heliopolis) in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border (Mecca) thereof to the Lord." The border of Ptolemy's empire was in Arabia.



The first wave of immigrants came with the success of the Maccabean, later Herodian, Judeo-Arab kingdom. Romanized Arabs (and Jews) from the trans-Jordan began migrating southward. The Tobiads which briefly had controlled Jerusalem extended their power southward from Petra and established the "Tubba" dynasty of kings of Himyar. Yathrib was settled during this period.

The second wave of immigrants came before the destruction of the Temple, when refugees fleeing the war, as well as the Sadducean leadership, fled to Arabia. Khaibar was established as a city of Sadducean Cohen-Priests at this time.

The third wave of immigrants were mostly refugees and soldiers from Bar Kochba's revolt – fighters trained in the art of war and zealously nationalistic – sought refugee in Arabia.

This last wave of immigrants included people who are known in Islamic literature as the Aus and the Khazraj. Around 300 CE, they were forced out of Syria by the rising strength of Christian Rome, and the adoption of the Ghassan leader, Harith I, of Christianity. At first the Aus and Khazraj lived on the outskirts of Yathrib. According to Islamic sources, the Khazraj, headed by Malik ibn Ajlan, sought and obtained military assistance from the Bani Ghasaan; and having enticed the principal chiefs of Yathrib into an enclosed tent, massacred them.[4] Then the citizens of Yathrib, beguiled into security by a treacherous peace, attended a feast given by their unprincipled foes; and there a second butchery took place, in which they lost the whole of their


1."A new Paradigm for the Rise of Islam and its
Consequences for a New Paradigm of the History of Israel" by Dr.
Günter Lüling; Originally appeared in The Journal of Higher Criticism Nr.
7/1, Spring 2000, pp. 23-53.

2.Hagarism, Crone and Cook

3.See the authors essays "The Prophet Muhammed as a
descendant of Onias III" and "From Bar Kochba to the Prophet

4.See Katib at Wackidi, p. 287.
5. "Life of Mohamet I", by Sir Walter Muir, Chapter III, Section 6

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